The Rapture in the Early Church

It might come as a surprise to many but before the time of Augustine virtually all the Church Fathers who wrote about the end times were all premillennial. Examples include:

Justin Martyr (100-165 AD)
“But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then he built, adorned, and enlarged, as the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.” Dialogue With Trypho, chapter 80

Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 240 AD)
“But we do confess that a kingdom is promised to us upon the earth, although before heaven, only in another state of existence; inasmuch as it will be after the resurrection for a thousand years in the divinely-built city of Jerusalem, ‘letdown from heaven,’ which the apostle also calls ‘our mother from above;’ and, while declaring that our citizenship is in heaven, he predicts of it that it is really a city in heaven. This both Ezekiel had knowledge of and the Apostle John beheld.” Against Marcion, book 3 chapter 25.

Some (but by no means all) also show signs of believing in the rapture as a distinct event from the second coming of Christ. Examples include:

Irenaeus (120-202 AD)
“And therefore, when in the end the Church shall be suddenly caught up from this, it is said, ‘There shall be tribulation such as has not been since the beginning, neither shall be.’ Matthew 24:21 For this is the last contest of the righteous, in which, when they overcome they are crowned with incorruption.” Against Heresies, Book 5:29

Victorinus of Pettau (died 303 or 304 AD)
“And the heaven withdrew as a scroll that is rolled up.’ For the heaven to be rolled away, that is, that the Church shall be taken away.Commentary on the Apocalypse 6:14
“And I saw another great and wonderful sign, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is completed the indignation of God.’ For the wrath of God always strikes the obstinate people with seven plagues, that is, perfectly, as it is said in Leviticus; and these shall be in the last time, when the Church shall have gone out of the midst. Commentary on the Apocalypse 15:1

Ephraem of Nisibis (306-373)
All the saints and elect of God are gathered together before the tribulation, which is to come, and are taken to the Lord, in order that they may not see at any time the confusion which overwhelms the world because of our sins.” On the Last Times, the Antichrist and the End of the World

Whilst a pre-trib rapture is up for debate we must acknowledge that as a doctrine it is far older than John Nelson Darby.

Further reading:
The Rapture of the Church: A Doctrine of the Early Church or a Recent Development of the Dispensational Movement?
The Rapture in Twenty Centuries of Biblical Interpretation
A Brief History of Early Premillennialism