Jordan Peterson, Dreams and Visions

Acts 2:16-17
“But this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: ‘And it shall come to pass in the last days, says God, That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams.”

All throughout the Bible God seems to reveal His will through dreams or visions, examples include: Genesis 37:5-10; 1 Kings 3:5-15; Daniel 2 & 7; Matthew 1:20; 2:13,19; and Acts 10:9-16; 16:9. In Acts 2:16-17 God promises that in the New Covenant age “Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams.” All of this talk of dreams and visions has given me much to think about.

In Second Temple Judaism there was a tradition referred to by scholars as Merkabah mysticism whereby a person would meditate, or contemplate using their active imagination the visions of heaven as revealed in prophetic books such as Ezekiel 1. The practitioner would imagine the Throne of God and the heavenly creatures etc. A number of scholars in recent years have proposed that Paul might have been doing this on his way to Damascus. Perhaps he was imagining the Throne of God and then when he looked up at the person on the Throne to his shock he saw Jesus (his Damascus road experience).

A similar concept appears in Ignatian spirituality, founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Ignatian spirituality again places great emphasis on meditation and contemplation. I read a recent article in Premier’s Christianity Magazine on Ignatian spirituality. The website was mentioned. One of the testimonies on that website says:

“… Ignatian meditation is a way of using our imagination to keep our focus on God so that it is easier to speak and to listen in prayer. She asked if we could try it and I did a short meditation with her. At the end of the prayer I asked if it had been helpful, to which she replied “I met Jesus and asked him into my life!” Over the coming weeks and months it became clear that she was experiencing the Holy Spirit at work in her life, changing her behaviour and bringing her hope and peace.” [i]

This form of active imagination is common in may religious and even non-religious traditions. The Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the active imagination as a bridge between the conscious “ego” and the unconscious. He sought to create daydreams, visions, and fantasies however you want to describe them and then let go and let them run away with themselves. He believed that this would allow his unconscious mind to communicate with his conscious self. Jung believed that the individual unconscious contains material that was once conscious but has since been forgotten or suppressed. He also proposed that there was collective unconscious that was inherited by all humans containing archetypes with universal meanings.

Jung recorded his own imaginative experiences between 1913 and 1916 in a series of journals that became his illuminated and illustrated Red Book. A recurring figure in Jung’s fantasies was Philemon who functioned like a spirit guide to him.

The connection between Ignatian spirituality as seen in TakeTime and Jung is evident in another testimony on the website. An atheist said:

“I listened to TakeTime and it was brilliant. Even though I am atheist I listened and when you were asking me to talk to Jesus I did in my own way, I spoke to myself about my problems and when I was listening for Jesus’ reply I was so relaxed that my mind could make sense of my problems and I felt that my subconscious could speak clearly and rationalise some of the problems I had. I thoroughly enjoyed it, thank you.” [ii]

The atheist accepts Jung’s premise that the figure in her imagination speaking to her is her unconscious self. The lady in the first testimony however believes that she met powerfully with Jesus and became a Christian “I met Jesus and asked him into my life!”.

One of Carl Jung’s most famous present day disciples is the Canadian clinical psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto, Jordan Peterson. Peterson has a very large a dedicated following among conservative Christians because of his conservative views and his promotion of Judeo-Christian values. Peterson has also lectured his way through the book of Genesis as part of his series dedicated to the Psychological Significance of the Biblical Stories.

Christians love him because he constantly talks about Jesus, God and Christian values yet he is not a Christian (in the sense that he actually believes it). For Jordan Peterson Jesus Christ is an archetype, perhaps the best one that gives meaning to all others but an archetype none the less.

I love listening to Jordan Peterson. I like a lot of what he says. I agree with a lot of what he says. However, I do think that conservative Christians should not swallow everything he says hook, line, and sinker.

For Carl Jung, the primary function of myth is to shed light on the workings of the unconscious. Mythology in this view is not a series of explanations for past natural events, but rather the tapestry of human experience expressed in a symbols and storytelling.

Jordan Peterson is loved by Christians because he is talking about the Psychological Significance of the Biblical Stories but he could just as easily be talking about the Psychological Significance of the stories of the Old Gods.

It should not come as a surprise to any of us that Nordic paganism is now Iceland’s fastest growing religion. The ‘association of the faith of the Æsir’ – Ásatrúarfélagið has grown from 570 members in 2002, to 3,900 members, making it the largest non-Christian religion in the country. The Allsherjargoði (High Priest) Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson told the Guardian “I don’t believe anyone believes in a one-eyed man who is riding about on a horse with eight feet…we see the stories as poetic metaphors and a manifestation of the forces of nature and human psychology,” [iii]

In Iceland a new Temple will be completed in the end of 2018. This Temple follows in the wake of Valheim Hof in Denmark, dedicated to Odin and the Old Gods and was completed in 2016. In Newark England an Odinist Temple was consecrated in 2014. All over the West the Old Gods are rising. Fyrnsida, Anglo-Saxon Heathenry is again on the rise in the UK. The Moscow Times also recently reported that the Russian Orthodox Church was concerned about the rise of Rodnovery (traditional Slavic paganism) in the Russian Armed Forces.

The followers of Heathenry as Allsherjargoði Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson said do not really believe in “a one-eyed man who is riding about on a horse with eight feet…we see the stories as poetic metaphors and a manifestation of the forces of nature and human psychology,” Modern Heathenry is therefore somewhat indebted to Carl Jung. The Old Gods are for them in part the archetypes of the collective unconscious.

Would conservative Christians like Jordan Peterson as much if he was lecturing through the Psychological Significance of the Prose and Poetic Edda of Norse Mythology? I think perhaps not.

We could think about the binding of Fenrir for example. Loki fathered Fenrir the wolf associated with destruction. As a young pup he was brought into the enclosure of the gods but he was growing too fast and was becoming too powerful. The gods knew that if he was left free to do as he pleased he would destroy them all. We could say that Fenrir is the wildness in each of us, the wolfish passions that if left alone can grow to consume us. He is the chaos in the garden of the gods. Fenrir must be bound and brought into line otherwise, the world would be devoured. Tyr his handler knew Fenrir had to be bound but it cost him his hand. Tyr protected the gods at the expense of his own body. The protection of the tribe and the individual often comes at a cost. The cost might be your own arm but it must be paid if chaos is to be chained and order re-established.

My concern with Jordan Peterson (as much as I admire him and enjoy listening to him) is that he sees the Biblical Stories only as archetypal stories that convey deep meaning. My problem with that is that you can look at the Psychological Significance of any myths and you can read meanings into any narrative.

Christians actually believe that invisible intelligences (God and angelic beings both good and bad) can and do speak to us through our dreams and visions. We believe that the images and stories are not just from our individual or collective unconscious minds. Perhaps Carl Jung’s spirit guide Philemon was more than just his unconscious mind, what if he was a malevolent invisible intelligence? We don’t know.

Exodus 90

Last year a group of three Protestant lads (myself included) and my wife decided to do our own version of Exodus 90. For those of you who have not heard of Exodus 90 – it is a Roman Catholic 90 day discipleship programme built around three things: Prayer, Asceticism (denying yourself) and Brotherhood. Check out (

The purpose of Exodus 90 is to have our own wilderness experience where we strip back all the things we comfort in and learn to depend upon God for everything. Break those bad habits and form some new ones. The 90-Day plan involves:
* daily cold showers
* no alcohol
* no desserts & sweets
* no television or movies
* only music that lifts the soul to God
* no computer games
* computer and phone for research and communication purposes ONLY.
* regular and intense exercise
* daily quiet time
* fasting: Wednesday and Fridays, one regular meal and two smaller meals. No meat.
* weekly meetings with the other guys doing the programme (in person)
* minimum of seven hours of sleep each night is essential

If you buy the official course you also have daily readings through the book of Exodus and weekly challenges etc. In typical Protestant fashion we didn’t use the official course materials but we did read through Paul’s Letter to the Romans. We changed the fast to once a week and made it no food until the evening meal.

We also introduced a “treat” day once a week where we could have one item on the list above such as a pudding or a bottle of beer.

The course was just what I needed and I know that our marriage was strengthened immensely by our own Exodus 90 experience. My wife and I without Netflix or a TV series to entertain us would sit down and chat with each other. We talked far more than we had in ages. My wife even started cross-stitching presents in the evenings. The weekly meetings were essential and wonderful. We chatted about our temptations, trials and struggles. We were able to build up one another in faith, hope and charity.

One year on… my wife and I would do it all again. #noregrets


Further reading:

Scripture and Authority

Protestants who have had any debate with Catholics or Orthodox believers usually end up talking about authority and the role of tradition, after all those are the main reasons for our separation. Catholics and Orthodox believers accept many practices to do with Baptism, the Breaking of Bread, the priesthood and the honouring of the Saints because of tradition.

Let us begin with some logic:

Premise 1: Scripture is the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.
Premise 2: Scripture nowhere lists which books are Scripture.
Conclusion: There is no way of knowing which books are an infallible rule of faith and practice.

Premise 3: Gospels and Letters were written by the genuine Apostles.
Premise 4: Churches planted by the genuine Apostles kept the genuine Apostles writings.
Conclusion: The Gospels and Letters belonging to the genuine Apostles were passed down through the churches planted by the genuine Apostles.

Premise 5: Gospels and Letters were written by false Apostles.
Premise 6: Churches planted by false Apostles kept the false Apostles writings.
Conclusion: The Gospels and Letters belonging to the false Apostles were passed down through the churches planted by the false Apostles.

Premise 7: The Church Fathers of the 4th Century believed in baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood.
Premise 8: The Church Fathers of the 4th Century codified the list of 27 books of the New Testament.
Conclusion: The list of 27 books of the New Testament was codified by churchmen who believed in baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood.

Premise 9: The Gospels and Letters belonging to the genuine Apostles were passed down through the churches planted by the genuine Apostles. The Gospels and Letters belonging to the false Apostles were passed down through the churches planted by the false Apostles.
Premise 10: The list of 27 books of the New Testament was codified by churchmen who believed in baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood.
Conclusion: The genuine apostolic writings are the 27 books of the New Testament that were passed down through the churches planted by the genuine Apostles. Those churches practised baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood.

Protestants especially Pentecostals today accept Scripture as their sole infallible rule of faith and practice. They should however be honest in admitting that the Church Fathers who were guided by the Holy Spirit in affirming the true and rejecting the false apostolic writings believed some different things to them. They practised baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood. In some forms of Protestantism many of these practices are still accepted especially in certain strands of Anglicanism and Lutheranism.

Pentecostals believe that many if not all of those practices arose within the first three hundred years of the church. All of the oldest churches and denominations in the world practice those same things and as such they must have been very early developments.

Of the books now accepted as the New Testament there were disputes over the acceptance of the Hebrews, James, II Peter, II John, III John, Jude and Revelation. No book in the final list of 27 books was ever declared spurious or heretical, except for Revelation which the Council of Laodicea in 363-364 AD rejected. It is speculated that this rejection was based upon the Montanists use of Revelation.

There were many Gospels and Epistles being passed around in early Christian communities. Many of them were written by pious Christians presenting their own ideas as if they had been written by the apostles. There were other letters linked to Paul such as the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, the Epistle to the Laodiceans and the Acts of Paul and Thecla. There is even an Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. There were many other gospels: Gospel of the Ebionites, Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel of the Nazarenes, Gospel of Marcion, Gospel of Mani, Gospel of Apelles, Gospel of Bardesanes, Gospel of Basilides, Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Nicodemus, Gospel of Judas Iscariot, Gospel of Mary Magdalene and the Gospel of Philip.

That is just naming a few! Some books were even listed as Scripture by some Church Fathers: 1 Clement, 2 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, and the Didache.

The classic Protestant view has been expressed by R.C. Sproul that the collection of Scripture that we have is a fallible collection of infallible books. He said:

Though Protestants believe that God gave special providential care to ensure that the proper books be included, he did not thereby render the Church itself infallible. Protestants also remind Roman Catholics that the Church did not “create” the Canon. The church recognized, acknowledged, received, and submitted to the canons of Scripture…The church did not create the canon, but merely recognized the books that bore the marks of canonicity, and were therefore authoritative within the Church” (Essential Truths of the Christian Faith, pages 22-23)

Many of the additional beliefs of the oldest churches come some of these extra writings. The name of Mary’s parents for example are from the ‘Protoevangelium of James’. The whole early life of Mary is given in this book. The Assumption of Mary is taken from ‘The Book of Mary’s Repose’. The Church Fathers did not receive these additional books as Scripture but they did read them and view them highly. It is no wonder then that Protestants who only use the 27 books of the New Testament would naturally have different practises than those who place their authority more widely.

Mormons and Christians have different Scriptures and so have different practises in the same way although Catholics and Protestants use them same New Testament books many Catholic traditions are to be found in the books that were never finally recognised as Scripture.

Pentecostal churches are an example of restorationism. Pentecostals seek to restore to the church that which they believe has been lost and remove those things which they believe have been added. Pentecostal churches share beliefs and practices common with other groups within restorationism such as believers baptism and a congregational polity.

Pentecostals acknowledge that by the 4th Century Christians had started to practise baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, the Breaking of Bread as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the concept of an established priesthood. We do however think that some of these ideas and practises are developments and so seek to return to the earliest Christian writings (the New Testament) and base our beliefs and practises on the first generation of Christians as revealed in the Scriptures.

The Ridgeway

 “Blessed is the man whose strength is in You, Whose heart is set on pilgrimage.” Psalm 84:5-7 (NKJV)

My friend Will Evans has recently finished walking the 87 mile (139km) long Ridgeway through ancient landscapes, woodland and secluded valleys. Often described as Britain’s oldest road it begins at Overton Hill, near Avebury, up through the Chiltern Hills to Ivinghoe Beacon in Buckinghamshire.

Will has been walking the route in parts over evenings and weekends and has finally come to the end of his journey.

Wikipedia says:
“The Ridgeway passes near many Neolithic, Iron Age and Bronze Age sites including Avebury Stone Circle; Barbury Castle, Liddington Castle, Uffington Castle, Segsbury Castle, Pulpit Hill and Ivinghoe Beacon Hill, all Iron Age and Bronze Age hill forts; Wayland’s Smithy, a Neolithic chieftain burial tomb; the Uffington White Horse, an ancient 400-foot (120 m) chalk horse carved into the hillside near Uffington Castle; and Grim’s Ditch, a 5-mile (8 km) section of earthwork near Mongewell created by Iron Age peoples as a possible demarcation line. Other points of interest include the Blowing Stone and Victory Drive, the private drive of Chequers (the British Prime Minister’s country retreat).”

Will completed the last 60 miles of the journey over a long weekend and I know that for him this was a pilgrimage of sorts. It was the start of something new and the ending of the old. It is a mile stone that he can look back on knowing what he has achieved. There is no better place to think than on the road.

“It’s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out your door. You step onto the road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there’s no knowing where you might be swept off to.”

― J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings

Pentecostals and Creation

According of AOG USA’s ‘Enrichment Journal’ the following stats show what percentage of students and faculty at Assemblies of God colleges and universities hold to various views of creation:

  • Young Earth Creationism: 35%
  • Old Earth Creationism/Progressive Creationism: 31%
  • Evolutionary Creationism: 16% (i)

Pentecostalism arose in the early 20th Century within the fundamentalist movement. Fundamentalists from many different denominations were united around traditional Christian doctrines such as the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth, historicity of miracles, the resurrection and the reality of heaven etc. Between 1910 and 1915 a set of ninety essays were published by the Testimony Publishing Company of Chicago entitled The Fundamentals: A Testimony To The Truth (generally referred to simply as The Fundamentals). The Christians who affirmed “The Fundamentals” saw themselves as fundamentalists.

It must be said however that some of the authors of “The Fundamentals” accepted biological evolution and an Old Earth. The article “Science and Christian Faith by James Orr” in Vol IV says “no violence done to the narrative in substituting in thought “aeonic” days—vast cosmic periods—for “days” on our narrower, sun-measured scale. Then the last trace of apparent “conflict” disappears.” And “Evolution,” in short, is coming to be recognized as but a new name for “creation,”

Whilst united on the deity of Christ and the virgin birth the Fundamentalists were not united on the age of the earth or evolution. It should be noted that by the mid-19th century most bible-believing Christians thanks to modern geology had concluded that Noah’s flood was local in nature covering only a part of the Middle East.

Early Pentecostals due to the wide popularity of the Scofield Reference Bible accepted dispensationalism, premillennialism and Gap Theory Creationism. Gap Theory Creationism was again popularised by the AOG minister Finis Jennings Dake in his “The Dake Annotated Reference Bible” (1963) which was the first widely published study bible produced by someone from within the Pentecostal tradition.

Gap Theory Creationism suggests that God created the Earth a long time ago and filled it with plants, animals and even pre-Adamic races of humans (the fossils we now dig up). This whole created order fits between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. According to the Gap Theory, Satan rebelled and all of creation was brought into ruin and so 6,000 years ago God re-created the world in seven days. This view is also expressed in “The Dawn of World Redemption” by Erich Sauer a book again popular with early Pentecostals.

The modern Young Earth Creationist Movement arose within Seventh-Day Adventism. Ellen White supposedly had a vision of a global flood that caused the fossils to be deposited in layers. George McCready Price (1870-1963) a Seventh-Day Adventist promoted this new view of flood geology in his book “The New Geology”. The book remained obscure until two fundamentalists John Whitcomb and Henry Morris reworked George McCready Price’s arguments into their own book “The Genesis Flood”. This book catapulted Young Earth Creationism out of Seventh-Day Adventism and into Fundamentalism.

Many Pentecostals having abandoned Gap Theory Creationism have adopted Young Earth Creationism because of their fundamentalist origins and desire for a “plain” reading of scripture.

Today the three main strands of creationism can be further explored by looking up the following ministries:

The Rapture in the Early Church

It might come as a surprise to many but before the time of Augustine virtually all the Church Fathers who wrote about the end times were all premillennial. Examples include:

Justin Martyr (100-165 AD)
“But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then he built, adorned, and enlarged, as the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.” Dialogue With Trypho, chapter 80

Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 240 AD)
“But we do confess that a kingdom is promised to us upon the earth, although before heaven, only in another state of existence; inasmuch as it will be after the resurrection for a thousand years in the divinely-built city of Jerusalem, ‘letdown from heaven,’ which the apostle also calls ‘our mother from above;’ and, while declaring that our citizenship is in heaven, he predicts of it that it is really a city in heaven. This both Ezekiel had knowledge of and the Apostle John beheld.” Against Marcion, book 3 chapter 25.

Some (but by no means all) also show signs of believing in the rapture as a distinct event from the second coming of Christ. Examples include:

Irenaeus (120-202 AD)
“And therefore, when in the end the Church shall be suddenly caught up from this, it is said, ‘There shall be tribulation such as has not been since the beginning, neither shall be.’ Matthew 24:21 For this is the last contest of the righteous, in which, when they overcome they are crowned with incorruption.” Against Heresies, Book 5:29

Victorinus of Pettau (died 303 or 304 AD)
“And the heaven withdrew as a scroll that is rolled up.’ For the heaven to be rolled away, that is, that the Church shall be taken away.Commentary on the Apocalypse 6:14
“And I saw another great and wonderful sign, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is completed the indignation of God.’ For the wrath of God always strikes the obstinate people with seven plagues, that is, perfectly, as it is said in Leviticus; and these shall be in the last time, when the Church shall have gone out of the midst. Commentary on the Apocalypse 15:1

Ephraem of Nisibis (306-373)
All the saints and elect of God are gathered together before the tribulation, which is to come, and are taken to the Lord, in order that they may not see at any time the confusion which overwhelms the world because of our sins.” On the Last Times, the Antichrist and the End of the World

Whilst a pre-trib rapture is up for debate we must acknowledge that as a doctrine it is far older than John Nelson Darby.

Further reading:
The Rapture of the Church: A Doctrine of the Early Church or a Recent Development of the Dispensational Movement?
The Rapture in Twenty Centuries of Biblical Interpretation
A Brief History of Early Premillennialism

Modern English Version (MEV) review

Recently I have fallen in love with a new (well new to me) Bible translation, the Modern English Version (MEV) . The MEV is new English translation of the Bible begun in 2005 and completed in 2013. It is published by Passio (Charisma House) a Pentecostal Publishing House.

The MEV is a translation of the Textus Receptus (the Greek Received Text) and the Jacob ben Hayyim edition of the Masoretic Text. The chief editor, and executive director of the project was Southern Baptist Rev. James F. Linzey with Assemblies of God ordained Stanley M. Horton serving as the senior editorial advisor. The ecumenical Committee on Bible Translation was composed of 47 American and English scholars.

The MEV is a formal correspondence translation and seeks to present the same Greek and Hebrew texts used for the King James Version in modern English. I love the MEV and highly recommend it.

When it comes to the Old Testament I believe that Christians need to be aware of both the Masoretic Text (which the MEV uses) and the Old Greek (LXX) translation as Jesus and the Apostles used both. Some Messianic Prophesies make little sense in the Masoretic Text whilst others are reliant upon it. The same can be said of the LXX. I have detailed how the MEV witnesses to the Messianic Prophecies in the Masoretic Text and LXX.

The vast majority of modern translations such as the NIV, ESV, NLT, NRSV, NASB etc. are all translated from what I will call the Critical Text (CT). This is a patchwork Greek text that is not found in any manuscript but rather picks and chooses various readings from different manuscripts to make what certain scholars think it is most likely version of the original (now lost) text.

There are a few other translations such as the KJV, NKJV and MEV that are based upon the Majority Text (MT) and the Textus Receptus (TR). The Majority Text (MT) is based upon the readings found in the majority of manuscripts. Where the majority of manuscripts agree – that is the Majority Text. The Textus Receptus (TR) is closely related to the Majority Text (MT) and is the “received text” of the Greek New Testament passed down through the Greek-speaking church from antiquity edited by Erasmus of Rotterdam.

I hold to an “Ecclesiastical Text” position meaning that I like to read a New Testament that is translated from the manuscripts passed down to us through the church rather than readings favoured by modern liberal scholars. Here are some examples for comparison:

Matthew 18:11
1. For the Son of Man has come to save that which was lost. (MEV)
2. Verse removed. (No ESV)

1 Timothy 3:16
1. Without question, great is the mystery of godliness; God was revealed in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen by angels, preached to the Gentiles, believed on in the world, taken up into glory. (MEV)
2. Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the Spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among the nations, believed on in the world, taken up in glory. (ESV)

In holding to an Ecclesiastical Text position I am saying that I trust the majority of manuscripts that we have and I trust that God has preserved his word through his church. Just because one or two manuscripts are older does not make them better. If Marcion’s butchered New Testament ever surfaced, it would be older than the manuscripts used in the Critical Text but that would not make it better.

The MEV has also been released in a number of Pentecostal Study Bibles;
1.The Fire Bible ;
2.The Spiritual Warfare Bible ; and
3.The Spirit Led Woman Bible.

The bonded leather cover feels great and the words are very readable. I love my thin line MEV and really cannot recommend it enough.

If you would like an introduction to some of these textual issues please check out this YouTube video by Jonathan Sheffield “The Textual Criticism of James White, Bart Erhman and Daniel Wallace”. Jonathan is a devout Calvinist and supports the Reformation and its understanding of these texts:

I would also recommend Jonathan Sheffield’s video retelling Charles Dickens’ Christmas Carol, this video focuses on Jesus’s words on the cross in Luke 23:34.